Pantothenic acid (vitamin B5) deficiency is associated with high serum copper values and seems to cause problems with copper utilization (1). The publishers of this study found the link between vitamin B5 deficiency and elevated copper rather relevant, they even proposed high serum copper as an indicator for vitamin B5 deficiency. (The study is from 1957 though.)
Copper is mainly bound to the binding protein ceruloplasmin and also in smaller amounts to glutathione and metallothionein. Only when copper gets bound sufficiently, is it bioavailable in the cells. Ceruloplasmin synthesis depends on adrenal and liver function. Vitamin B5 can strengthen adrenal function. This could support ceruloplasmin synthesis. Also, vitamin B5 supplementation can increase glutathione production (2).
Copper is a cofactor for the enzyme methionine synthase (3), which is associated with the MTR gene. The methionine synthase converts homocysteine to methionine with methylcobalamin/B12. The produced cob(I)alamin is then regenerated back to methylcobalamin, using a methylgroup from methylfolate. (Here a picture with the mechanism on Wikipedia.)
I was wondering if this could conclude a connection between vitamin B5 status, copper utilization and the activity of copper enzymes like methionine synthase.
I have had some mixed reactions to vitamin B5/ calcium pantothenate supplements (50-100mg). While vitamin B5 can increase my energy levels and make fats easier digestible, it also tends to increase sensory overload and make me feel more irritable/ on edge.
Vitamin B5 is activated with cysteine and the vitamin B2 coenzyme FMN to coenzyme A/ CoA-SH. The body needs CoA-SH to produce acetyl-CoA. Although pantothenic acid is not light-sensitive, calcium pantothenate might be. You should ‘store [calcium pantothenate] in a cool, dry place. Store in a tightly closed container’ (4).
1. An effect of Panthotenic Acid on serum copper values in human pellagra
2. Pantothenic acid and pantothenol increase biosynthesis of glutathione by boosting cell energetics